Different parts of a thesis paper

The following are some elements that can be included in the second part of the Literature Review chapter. Discuss with your adviser to finalize the sections and sub-headings. The last part is the Chapter Summary. Summarize the important aspects of the existing body of literature. Assess the current state of the literature reviewed.

It should be well-developed in order to obtain all the information required to answer your research questions, test a theory or explain a situation relevant to the main aim of the research. Start this chapter with a short introduction to your research design. In this section, the research questions, hypotheses and objectives must be presented. An overview of the research approach, and the techniques and measurements that will be used to analyze data are also included in the introduction.

The next part of this chapter, or the Body, consists of some or all sections shown below. Each section should be described and explained in detail. Discuss with your adviser for additional sections and sub-headings for each section or a more appropriate structure.


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The last section is the Chapter Summary. The Final Chapters of your Thesis. At this stage, you have already collected as much data as you can and are ready to process and analyze such a huge amount of information. However, expect a lot of changes in your process, methods and chapters. These changes can come from your research adviser, too. The first step you need to do is to revisit the first three chapters of your thesis. Here, you would need to make the necessary corrections to some of the sections presented during the proposal stage.

For example, you might have to fine-tune your research questions and objectives based on the data you have gathered or what you have found during the research process. The Scope and Limitations of the Study section in Chapter 1 would now have to be included in Chapter 3. Another section, Organization of the Study, must be added in Chapter 1. Check the figure below for the main parts of a thesis. Variations from the general format can be decided with your adviser. Figure 1: Main parts of a thesis or dissertation. If this chapter is generally brief, presenting the results, and explaining and interpreting them can be combined in one chapter.

Otherwise, the Results and Discussion section should be in separate or defined sections or chapters. Start with a brief introduction of this chapter. Results : answers to the research questions which are generated from the collected data. Your opinion should not be included when presenting the results. Descriptive or frequency statistical results of all variables must be reported first before specific statistical tests e.

For instance, the profile of participants or respondents, or characteristics of the sample is presented first if available. Specific quotes from interviews must be presented under a specific theme or sub-theme in the same way results from focus group discussions are reported. When reporting results from observations, present the conversation, behavior or condition you have noticed first. Then, write your comments. Discussion : explains the meaning of the results presented in specific sections and links them to previous research studies.

Research Paper Thesis: Its Role & Significance

It explains why the findings are weak, strong or significant, and their limitations. A further review of the literature might be required to enhance the discussion of results. End each chapter with a summary. Introduce this chapter. First, refer back to the problem or topic that you have presented in Chapter 1 and what you hoped to achieve at the beginning of the research.

The research questions you tried to answer must also be reviewed in this chapter as well as your hypotheses, if applicable.

Life, Death, and Thesis Outline Example

It is important to also reexamine the methodology followed in the research and show how the objectives were achieved or were not achieved with the application of different methods and techniques. End this chapter with some reflections and final words. When all the chapters have been finalized, you are now ready to prepare the abstract.

Major Parts of a Research Paper

It is written in the form of a summary, describing briefly the research problem, the aims of the research, the methods used to achieve them, and the main findings and conclusions. Although the abstract is very short approximately paragraphs , it can be considered as the most significant part of your thesis or dissertation. The abstract provides a general impression of what your research is about, and allows other researchers to have a broad understanding of your work.

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When applying for conferences, your abstract is assessed by an organizing committee for relevance and quality. Make sure to create an impact—write an impressive abstract. Language Center Asian Institute of Technology. Search Search. Points to keep in mind: Research is a process which involves a lot of thinking, planning and writing. Take note of the following verb tenses when writing your chapters: Introduction Chapter 1 Simple present and future tense Literature Review Chapter 2 Present but mostly past Methodology Chapter 3 Present but mostly future Your advisor is your ally.

Subheadings and what they mean: Background — What is the context of this problem? In what situation or environment can it be observed? Provide sufficient information for the readers to understand the topic you are researching about. Statement of the Problem — What is it that we do not know? What is the gap in our knowledge this research will fill? What needs to be improved? Rationale or Justification of the Study — Why is this research important?

The parts of a thesis – Language Center

Who will benefit? Why do we need to know this? Research Questions — W hat is it that you want to find out? One of the first tasks of a researcher is defining the scope of a study, i. Narrowing the scope of your thesis can be time-consuming. Paradoxically, the more you limit the scope, the more interesting it becomes. This is because a narrower scope lets you clarify the problem and study it at greater depth, whereas very broad research questions only allow a superficial treatment.

The research question can be formulated as one main question with a few more specific sub-questions or in the form of a hypothesis that will be tested. Your research question will be your guide as your writing proceeds. If you are working independently, you are also free to modify it as you go along. How do you know that you have drafted a research question? Most importantly, a research question is something that can be answered.


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If not, you have probably come up with a theme or field, not a question. The outline gives an overview of the main points of your thesis. It clarifies the structure of your thesis and helps you find the correct focus for your work. The outline can also be used in supervision sessions, especially in the beginning.

You might find that you need to restructure your thesis. Working on your outline can then be a good way of making sense of the necessary changes. A good outline shows how the different parts relate to each other, and is a useful guide for the reader. It often makes sense to put the outline at the end of the introduction, but this rule is not set in stone. Use discretion: What is most helpful for the reader? The information should come at the right point — not too early and not too late. The theory used in an empirical study is meant to shed light on the data in a scholarly or scientific manner.

It should give insights not achievable by ordinary, everyday reflections. The main purpose of using theory is to analyse and interpret your data. Therefore, you should not present theoretical perspectives that are not being put to use. Doing so will create false expectations, and suggests that your work is incomplete.

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Writing A Thesis Statement for a Research Paper: Basics & Hints

Not all theses have a separate theory section. In the IMRaD format the theory section is included in the introduction, and the second chapter covers the methods used. What kind of theory should you choose?